A Quick Understanding of Vitamins and Supplements

by | May 20, 2022 | Articles, Quick Notes | 0 comments

At some point everybody has wondered what all the different supplements and vitamins actually do for our bodies. This curiosity makes sense considering the number of times you hear about how you need to take X supplement or how beneficial it is to get your daily vitamins in. This is true but, having an understanding of what each vitamin or supplement will do for your body makes it less stressful and easier to figure out what you need for your body. Here is the breakdown including what each vitamin does, deficiency symptoms, natural sources, recommended daily intakes (RDI) or recommended dietary allowance (RDA), as well as the functional highs and lows of each vitamin.

You can also visit these sites if you want to learn more about these vitamins and supplements and figure out what may be best for you and your body!

 

Supplements

SupplementDefinition/FunctionFunctional High
(excess symptoms)
Functional Low (deficiency symptoms)Natural SourcesMore Information
Vitamin A (retinol)
Avg. RDI (for adults): 800 ug
a fat-soluble vitamin important for visual health, cell turnover, growth, and immunity3,000 ug/day for an adult
Excess Vitamin A can cause vision problems, mouth ulcers, head confusion, and possible birth defects if pregnant
Deficiency symptoms include night blindness, damage to mucous membranes, acne, dry skin, and dry eyesBeef liver (731% DV), Sweet potato (156% DV), Spinach (64% DV), Carrots (51% DV), Herring (24%), Cantaloupe (15% DV), Peppers (13%), Mangoes (12%)- All About Vitamin A | Let Go & Grow (letgoandgrow.com)
- 20 Foods That Are High in Vitamin A (healthline.com)
-Vitamin A | Nutrient Reference Values (nrv.gov.au)
- 8 Signs and Symptoms of Vitamin A Deficiency (healthline.com)
- Vitamin A and Carotenoids - Health Professional Fact Sheet (nih.gov)
Vitamin D (calciferol)
Avg. RDI: 15 mcg
a fat-soluble vitamin that aids in the absorption of calcium and phosphorous100 mcg/day
Excess Vitamin D can cause apathy, confusion, dehydration, and abdominal pain
Deficiency symptoms include rickets and osteomalaciaCod liver oil (170% DV), Trout (81% DV), Salmon (71% DV), Mushrooms (46% DV), Sardines (6% DV), Eggs (6% DV), Beef liver (5% DV), Chicken breast (1% DV), Sunshine- Vitamin D - Health Professional Fact Sheet (nih.gov)
- Vitamin D: Benefits, Sources, Deficiencies (healthline.com)
Vitamin E (tocopherol)
Avg. RDI: 15 mg
a fat-soluble vitamin that works to aid in muscle maintenance and prevents oxidation of cellular components. Beneficial to skin health, cognitive health, and lung function1,000 mg/day
Excess Vitamin E can cause hemorrhage and interrupt blood coagulation
Deficiency symptom includes anemia. Sunflower seeds (29% DV), Almonds (45% DV), Hazelnuts (29% DV), Spinach (boiled) (13% DV), Broccoli (8% DV), Kiwifruit (7% DV), Mango (5% DV), Tomato (5% DV)- 20 Foods That Are High in Vitamin E (healthline.com)
- The Benefits of Vitamin E (healthline.com)
- Vitamin E - Health Professional Fact Sheet (nih.gov)
Vitamin K (menadione)
Avg. RDI: 100 mcg
a fat-soluble vitamin that helps perform the function of blood clotting and is important for bone healthNo known upper limit
Excess Vitamin K is considered non-toxic but can possibly cause jaundice in infants
Deficiency symptoms include blood clotting problems, most common in infantsCollards (442% DV), Turnip greens (355% DV), Spinach (121% DV), Kale (94% DV), Broccoli (92% DV), Pumpkin (17% DV), Okra (13% DV), Pine nuts (13% DV), Blueberries (12% DV), Chicken breast (11% DV), Grapes (9% DV), Carrots (7% DV), Ground beef (5% DV)- Vitamin K3 (Menadione): Benefits, Uses, and Side Effects (healthline.com)
- Vitamin K Foods: 20 Tasty, Nutritious Options (healthline.com)
- Vitamin K - Consumer (nih.gov)
- Vitamin K - Health Professional Fact Sheet (nih.gov)
Vitamin B1 (thiamine)
Avg. RDI: 1.1 mcg
a water-soluble vitamin that works as a coenzyme in cellular respirationNo known upper limit
Excess Vitamin B1 is considered non-toxic
Deficiency symptoms include beriberi, loss of appetite, and fatigueWhite rice (117% DV), Pork chop (33% DV), Trout (33% DV), Black beans (33% DV), Mussels (25% DV), Bluefin Tuna (17% DV), Brown Rice (8% DV), Sunflower seeds (8% DV), Corn (8% DV) - Thiamine (Vitamin B1): Deficiency Symptoms and Treatment (healthline.com)
- Thiamin | Nutrient Reference Values (nrv.gov.au)
- Thiamin - Health Professional Fact Sheet (nih.gov)
Vitamin B2 (riboflavin)
Avg. RDI: 1.2 mg
a water-soluble vitamin that acts as a coenzyme in cellular respiration focusing on FAD and FMNNo known upper limit
Excess Vitamin B2 is considered non-toxic and have no adverse effects
Deficiency symptom includes lesions in the corners of the mouthBeef liver (223% DV), Oats (85% DV), Clams (31% DV), Almonds (23% DV), Portabella mushrooms (15% DV), Rotisserie chicken (15% DV), Egg (15% DV), Salmon (15% DV), Spinach (8% DV), Apple (8% DV), Cod (8% DV), Sunflower seeds (8% DV), Tomatoes (8% DV)- Vitamin Watch: What Does B2 Do? (healthline.com)
- Riboflavin | Nutrient Reference Values (nrv.gov.au)
- Riboflavin - Health Professional Fact Sheet (nih.gov)
Vitamin B3 (niacin)
Avg. RDI: 15 mg
a water-soluble vitamin that acts as a coenzyme in cell metabolism focusing on NAD and NADPNicotinamide: 900 mg/day
Nicotinic acid: 35 mg/day
Excess Vitamin B3 can cause burning flesh on face and hands, cramps, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and in more severe cases it can cause possible liver damage, large rashes, irregular heart rhythm, and gouty arthritis
Deficiency symptoms include pellagra, skin disorders, diarrhea, mental disorders, bright red tongue, and loss of appetiteBeef liver (93% DV), Chicken breast (64% DV), Turkey breast (63% DV), Salmon (54% DV), Tuna (54% DV), Beef (36% DV), Brown rice (33% DV), Peanuts (26% DV), Russet potatoes (14% DV), Sunflower seeds (13% DV), Bananas (5% DV), Tomatoes (3% DV), Broccoli (3% DV), Apple (1% DV)- 5 Benefits of Niacin (Vitamin B3) That You May Not Know (healthline.com)
- Niacin | Nutrient Reference Values (nrv.gov.au)
- Niacin - Health Professional Fact Sheet (nih.gov)
Vitamin B5 (pantothenic acid)
Avg. RDI: 5 mg
a water-soluble vitamin that supports the functioning of acetyl COA, the digestive tract, making of red blood cells, sex and stress hormones, and proper functioning nervous system and liverNo known upper limit
Excess Vitamin B5 is considered non-toxic but can possibly cause mild diarrhea and GI upset
Deficiency symptoms include adrenal and reproductive issues, and gastrointestinal problemsBeef liver (166% DV), Shitake mushrooms (52% DV), Sunflower seeds (48% DV), Chicken breast (26% DV), Bluefin Tuna (24% DV), Avocadoes (20% DV), Sweet potatoes (18% DV) White mushrooms (16% DV), Russet potatoes (14% DV), Egg (14% DV), Ground beef (12% DV), Roasted peanuts (10% DV), Broccoli (10% DV), Chickpeas (8% DV), - Pantothenic Acid - Health Professional Fact Sheet (nih.gov)
- Pantothenic acid | Nutrient Reference Values (nrv.gov.au)
- Vitamin B5 (Pantothenic Acid) (healthline.com)
- 6 Surprising Health Benefits of Sweet Potatoes (healthline.com)
Vitamin B6 (pyridoxine)
Avg. RDI: 1.3 mg
a water-soluble vitamin that acts as a coenzyme in amino acid metabolism50 mg/day
Excess Vitamin B6 can cause serious damage including nerve damage, sensitivity to light, and painful skin lesions
Deficiency symptoms include anemia, slow growth, skin problems, and convulsionsChickpeas (65% DV), Beef liver (53% DV), Yellowfin tuna (53% DV), Salmon (35% DV), avocado (30% DV), Chicken breast (29% DV), Potatoes (25% DV), Turkey (25% DV), Banana (25% DV), Ground beef (18% DV), sweet red peppers (17% DV), Winter baked squash (12% DV), White rice (6% DV), Onions (6% DV), Spinach (6% DV), Watermelon (6% DV)- 9 Signs and Symptoms of Vitamin B6 Deficiency (healthline.com)
- B-Complex Vitamins: Benefits, Side Effects, and Dosage (healthline.com)
- Vitamin B6 | Nutrient Reference Values (nrv.gov.au)
- Vitamin B6 - Health Professional Fact Sheet (nih.gov)
- Peppers, sweet, red, raw: Nutritional value, label and calories (nutritionalvalue.net)
- 7 Benefits of Eating Avocados, According to a Dietitian (healthline.com)
Vitamin B9 (folic acid)
Avg. RDI: 400 ug
a water-soluble vitamin that acts as a coenzyme in formation of heme and nucleotides1,000 ug/day
Excess Vitamin B9 can cause general toxicity, higher levels of carcinogenesis, and bad reproductive and development effects
Deficiency symptom includes anemiaBeef liver (54% DV), Spinach (boiled) (33% DV), White rice (22% DV), Asparagus (22% DV), Brussels sprouts (20% DV), Avocado (15% DV), Broccoli (13% DV), Green beans (12% DV), Orange (7% DV), Papaya (7% DV), Banana (6% DV), Egg (6% DV), Halibut (3% DV) - Folic Acid: Benefits, Foods, Deficiency, and More (healthline.com)
- Folate | Nutrient Reference Values (nrv.gov.au)
- Folate - Health Professional Fact Sheet (nih.gov)
Vitamin B12 (cobalamin)
Avg. RDI: 2.4 ug
a water-soluble vitamin that acts as a coenzyme in the formation of nucleic acids and proteins, aids in the formation of red blood cells and maintaining healthy and normal brain functionsNo known upper limit
Excess Vitamin B12 is considered non-toxic but may cause GI upset
Deficiency symptom includes pernicious anemiaLamb liver (3,571% DV), Beef liver (2,944% DV), Clams (708% DV), Sardines (1cup) (554% DV), Bluefin tuna (385% DV), Atlantic salmon (108% DV), Ground beef (100 % DV), Egg (19% DV), Turkey breast (14% DV) - Vitamin B12 Foods: 12 Great Sources (healthline.com)
- Vitamin B12 | Nutrient Reference Values (nrv.gov.au)
- Vitamin B12 - Health Professional Fact Sheet (nih.gov)
Vitamin C (ascorbic acid)
Avg. RDI: 45 mg
a water-soluble vitamin that aids in the formation of connective tissues and acts as a preventative in oxidation of cellular constituentsNo known upper limit but 1,000 mg/day is an advisable limit
Excess Vitamin C can cause gastrointestinal effects and possible increase in urinary oxalate stones.
Deficiency symptoms include scurvy, slow healing, poor bone growth, rough bumpy skin, easy bruising, painful/swollen joints, and poor immunitySweet red pepper (106% DV), Orange (78% DV), Grapefruit juice (78% DV), Kiwifruit (71% DV), Sweet green pepper (67% DV), Broccoli (57% DV), Strawberries (54% DV), grapefruit (43% DV), Cantaloupe (32% DV), Cauliflower (29% DV), Potato (19% DV), Tomato (19% DV), Spinach (10% DV)- 15 Signs and Symptoms of Vitamin C Deficiency (healthline.com)
- Vitamin C | Nutrient Reference Values (nrv.gov.au)
- Vitamin C - Health Professional Fact Sheet (nih.gov)
Vitamin H (biotin)
Avg. RDI: 30 mcg
a water-soluble vitamin is present in coenzymes and helps convert food into energy. Important for embryonic growthNo known upper limit
Excess Vitamin H does not have any adverse effects
Deficiency symptoms include skin problems and hair lossBeef liver (103% DV), Egg (33% DV), Pink salmon (17% DV), Pork chop (13% DV), Sunflower seeds (9% DV), Sweet potato (8% DV), Almonds (5% DV), Tuna (2% DV), Broccoli (1% DV), Banana (1% DV)- Health Benefits of Biotin: What Does the Science Say? (healthline.com)
- Biotin - Health Professional Fact Sheet (nih.gov)
Calcium
Avg. RDI: 1,000 mg
an essential mineral that helps maintain bones and teeth, regulate heart rhythm, reduce blood cholesterol, lowers blood pressure, regulate passage of nutrients through cell walls, aid in blood clotting, maintain nerve and muscle function, and essential for normal kidney function2,500 mg/day
Excess calcium can possibly cause poor muscle tone, constipation, nausea, fatigue, heart arrhythmia
Deficiency symptoms include osteomalacia, osteoporosis, rickets, seizures, and muscles spasmsSardines (25% DV), Pink salmon (14% DV), Spinach (9% DV), Turnip greens (8% DV), Kale (7% DV), Chia seeds (6% DV), Pinto beans (4% DV), Broccoli (2% DV)- Calcium - Health Professional Fact Sheet (nih.gov)
- Calcium-Rich Foods That Improve Your Bones (healthline.com)
Phosphorus
Avg. RDI: 1,000 mg
an essential mineral that aids in bone mineralization, forming collagen, in energy production, and aids in balancing acid-base pairing in blood plasma, phospholipids, DNA, and enzymes4,000 mg/day
Excess phosphorus rarely has any effects though can cause brittle bones and possible cardiovascular and kidney effects.
Deficiency symptoms include anxiety, fatigue, bone pain, joint stiffness, numbness, loss of appetite, and changes in body weightfound in almost all foods; Atlantic salmon (17% DV), Chicken breast (15% DV), Lentils (14% DV), Cashew nuts (11% DV), Russet potatoes (10% DV), Kidney beans (9% DV), Brown rice (8% DV), Egg (7% DV), Sesame seeds (5%DV), Asparagus (4% DV), Apple (2% DV)- Phosphorus - Health Professional Fact Sheet (nih.gov)
- Phosphorus Deficiency: What Are the Symptoms and Treatments? (healthline.com)
Magnesium
Avg. RDI: 350 mg
an essential mineral that aids in the regulation of the neuromuscular activity of the heart and maintain a healthy heart rhythm, aids in Vitamin C and calcium metabolism, and transforms blood sugar into energyCannot get too much magnesium from food but can have excess from supplements. The supplemental Upper Limit is 350 mg/day
Excess magnesium can cause nausea, abdominal cramping, diarrhea, weakness, lower heart and breathing rate, and fatigue
Deficiency symptoms include muscle spasms, mental health conditions, fatigue and muscle weakness, high blood pressure, confusions, and tremorsPumpkin seeds (37% DV), Chia seeds (26% DV), Almonds (19% DV), Spinach (19% DV), Cashews (18% DV), Dark chocolate (1-ounce) (16% DV), Peanuts (15% DV), Banana (8% DV), Atlantic salmon (6% DV), Halibut (6% DV), Avocado (5% DV), Carrot (2% DV)- 7 Signs and Symptoms of Magnesium Deficiency (healthline.com)
- Magnesium - Health Professional Fact Sheet (nih.gov)
- 10 Magnesium-Rich Foods That Are Super Healthy (healthline.com)
Sodium
Avg. RDI: 2,300 mg
an essential mineral that works with potassium to aid in proper body water distribution and blood pressure, aids in maintaining acid-base balance, and aids in the transmission of nerve impulsions2,300 mg/day
Excess sodium can cause more work on the kidney and heart, high blood pressure, water retention, and bloating
Deficiency symptoms include muscle cramps, stomach cramps, fatigue, nausea, water poisoning, and possible memory lossHighly processed foods, sardines, Shrimp (3 oz) (35% DV), Ham (48% DV), Jerky (1 oz) (27% DV), Pickles (1 oz) (10% DV)- 30 Foods High in Sodium and What to Eat Instead (healthline.com)
- Sodium, Salt, and You - Harvard Health Publications
Potassium
Avg. RDI: 3,500 mg
an essential mineral that aids in reducing blood pressure, in water level balance, normal heart rhythm, proper pH balance, stimulate kidneys to remove poisonous body wastes, and promotes healthy skinNo known upper limit
Excess symptoms can cause heart arrhythmia, possible heart failure, muscle weakness, and pain
Deficiency symptoms include fatigue, muscle spasms, cramping, lethargy, weakness, constipation, nausea, irregular heartbeat, and poor reflexesApricots (16% DV), Lentils (16% DV), Acorn squash (14% DV), Baked potato (13% DV), Kidney beans (13% DV), Banana (9% DV), Spinach (7% DV), Chicken breast (7% DV), Sirloin beef (7% DV), Tomato (6% DV), Broccoli (5% DV), Apple (4% DV), Egg (1% DV)- Potassium: Sources, Deficiencies, Overdose, Treatment & More (healthline.com)
- Potassium - Health Professional Fact Sheet (nih.gov)
- 14 Healthy Foods That Are High in Potassium (healthline.com)
Iron
Avg. RDI: 15 mg
a trace mineral that aids in the production of hemoglobin, helps create quality blood and increases resistance of stress and disease, necessary to form myoglobin, and prevents fatigue and promotes good skin tone45 mg/day
Excess iron can cause dizziness, low blood pressure, fever, weak pulse, shortness of breath, fluid in lungs, jaundice, cramps, diarrhea, and sever cases can be fatal
Deficiency symptoms include anemia, fatigue, listlessness, pale skin, difficulty swallowing, weakness, irritability, and cracked lips or tongueOysters (44% DV), White beans (44% DV), Beef liver (28% DV), Lentils (17% DV), Spinach (17% DV), Dark chocolate (11% DV), Atlantic sardines (11% DV), Beef (11% DV), Baked potato (11% DV), Roasted chicken (6% DV), Roasted turkey (6% DV), Broccoli (6% DV), Egg (6% DV)- Iron Poisoning: Symptoms and Treatments (healthline.com)
- Iron-Deficiency Anemia: Symptoms, Causes, and More (healthline.com)
- Iron - Health Professional Fact Sheet (nih.gov)
Zinc
Avg. RDI: 10 mg
a trace mineral that assists in wound healing, protein synthesis, antioxidant nutrient, growth and development, gene expression, normal tissue function, governs contractility of muscles, and aids in digestion and metabolism of phosphorous40 mg/day
Excess zinc can cause nausea, vomiting, stomach pains, kidney failure, poor coordination, headaches, and reduced immune function
Deficiency symptoms include slowed growth, delayed sexual development, skin lesions, diarrhea, impaired wound healing, hair loss and loss of appetiteOysters (673% DV), Beef chuck roast (64% DV), Alaska Kind Crab (59% DV), Lobster (31% DV), Porck chop (26% DV), Baked beans (16% DV), Chicken (dark meat) (22% DV), Pumpkin seeds (20% DV), Cashews (15% DV), Almonds (8% DV), Chicken breast (8% DV), Peas (5% DV)- Zinc Deficiency: Symptoms, Diagnosis, and More (healthline.com)
- Zinc: Benefits, Deficiency, Food Sources and Side Effects (healthline.com)
- Zinc - Health Professional Fact Sheet (nih.gov)
Copper
Avg. RDI: 2 mg
a trace mineral that helps in the formation of red blood cells, proper bone formation and maintenance, connective tissue formation, needed for absorption and use of iron, and aids to oxidize Vitamin C and work with Vitamin C to form elastin10 mg/day
Excess copper can cause headaches, muscle aches, vomiting, nausea, diarrhea, black poop, hemolytic anemia, abdominal cramps, and jaundice
Deficiency symptoms include always cold, impaired bone and hair growth, pale skin, anemia, fatigue, skin sores, frequently sick, easy bruising, and abnormal nervous system developmentBeef liver (1,378% DV), Oysters (539% DV), Potatoes (75% DV), Shiitake mushrooms (72% DV), Cashews (70% DV), Sunflower seeds (68% DV), Atlantic salmon (30% DV), Avocado (24% DV), Spinach (17% DV), Ground turkey (14% DV), Apples (2% DV)- Copper Deficiency: Symptoms, Treatment, and More (healthline.com)
- Copper Toxicity: Signs, Causes, Treatment, & the IUD (healthline.com)
- 8 Foods That Are High in Copper (healthline.com)
- Copper - Health Professional Fact Sheet (nih.gov)
Selenium
Avg. RDI: 55 mcg
a trace mineral that acts as an antioxidant, aids in protection of cell membranes, prevents free radical production, preserves tissue elasticity, slows aging of tissues, and helps prevents and treat dandruff400 mcg/day
Excess selenium can cause hair loss, nail loss, nausea, tooth decay, fatigue, diarrhea, and skin rashes
Deficiency symptoms include heart problems, infertility, fatigue, hair loss, mental fog, and a weakened immune systemBrazil nuts (989% DV), Yellowfin tuna (167% DV), Halibut (85% DV), Sardines (82% DV), Roasted ham (76% DV), Shrimp (73% DV), Beef steak (60% DV), Beef liver (51% DV), Chicken (light meat) (40% DV), Egg (27% DV), Baked beans (24% DV), Spinach (9% DV), Bananas (2% DV)- Selenium Deficiency: Symptoms, Causes, and Treatment (healthline.com)
- Selenium Foods: 20 Selenium-Rich Foods for Every Diet (healthline.com)
- 7 Science-Based Health Benefits of Selenium (healthline.com)
- Selenium - Health Professional Fact Sheet (nih.gov)
Chromium
Avg. RDI: 30 mcg
a trace mineral that aids in lowering triglyceride and cholesterol levels, works with insulin in metabolism of sugar and the balancing of blood sugar levels, aids in transportation of amino acids in body, and controls appetite No known upper limit
Excess chromium is not common and is generally non-toxic but industrial exposure can potentially cause lung cancer
Deficiency symptoms include fat, sugar, and protein metabolism disturbances but is rareGrape juice (21% DV), Ham (10% DV), Beef (6% DV), Turkey breast (5% DV), Apple (4% DV), Green beans (3% DV), Banana (3% DV), Haddock (2% DV), Orange (1% DV), Egg (1% DV)- 8 High Chromium Foods (healthline.com)
- Chromium - Health Professional Fact Sheet (nih.gov)
Iodine
Avg. RDI: 150 mcg
a trace mineral that helps in development and functioning of thyroid gland, regulation of energy production, stimulates rate of metabolism, and improves cognitive function1,100 mcg/day
Excess iodine can cause diarrhea, headaches, vomiting, iodide goiter, metallic taste, rash, turning blue, and weak pulse
Deficiency symptoms include low levels of thyroid hormones, slowed growth and sexual development, deafness, cretinism, and cognitive issuesCod (106% DV), Seaweed (77% DV), Oysters (62% DV), Egg (17% DV), beef liver (9% DV), Shrimp (9% DV), Tuna (5% DV), Chicken breast (1% DV)- Iodine Uses: Benefits, Side Effects, Recommendations, and More (healthline.com)
- Iodine Poisoning: Symptoms, Seafood and Other Causes, Treatment (healthline.com)
- Iodine Deficiency: Symptoms, Related Conditions, and Treatment (healthline.com)
- Iodine - Health Professional Fact Sheet (nih.gov)
Manganese
Avg. RDI: 2 mg
a trace mineral that acts as an antioxidant, helps breakdown amino acids and energy production, needed for metabolism of Vitamin B1 and Vitamin E, activates the enzymes needed for proper digestion and use of foods, helps in breakdown in fats, and cholesterol, important for bone health and development, and maintains the production of sex hormones11 mg/day
Excess manganese is considered non-toxic but can cause muscle spasms, hearing loss, and feeling unbalanced
Deficiency symptoms include rapid breathing, skeletal defects, slow growth, low fertility, rapid heartbeat, abnormal metabolism of carbohydrates and fats, and night blindnessBlue mussels (252% DV), Hazelnuts (70% DV), Pecans (48% DV), Oysters (43% DV), Clams (39% DV), Spinach (35% DV), Pineapple (35% DV), Peanuts (22% DV), Lentils (22% DV), Potato (13% DV), Kidney beans (13% DV), Blueberries (13% DV), Kale (9% DV), Apple (4% DV)- 10 Evidence-Based Benefits of Manganese (healthline.com)
- Manganese - Health Professional Fact Sheet (nih.gov)
Molybdenum
Avg. RDI: 45 mcg
a trace mineral that is a component of enzymes including sulfite oxidase, xanthine oxidase, aldehyde oxidase, and mitochondrial amidoxime reducing component2,000 mcg
Excess molybdenum is considered non-toxic but can cause achy joints, gout-like symptoms, decreased fertility, poor bone health, and increased levels of uric acid in blood.
Deficiency symptoms include rapid breathing, rapid heartbeat, night blindness, brain abnormalities, and developmental delaysBlack-eyed peas (640% DV), Beef liver (231% DV), Lima beans (231% DV), Baked potato (36% DV), Banana (33% DV), Peanuts (24% DV), Chicken (light meat) (20% DV), Egg (20% DV), Spinach (18% DV), Ground beef (18% DV), Pecans (18% DV), Sweet yellow corn (13% DV), Tuna (11% DV), Orange (9% DV), Carrots (4% DV)- Why Molybdenum Is an Essential Nutrient (healthline.com)
- Molybdenum - Health Professional Fact Sheet (nih.gov)

 

This is just a quick overview of all the vitamins and supplements essential to your health and well-being. To learn more in depth and get personalized help you can visit these links!

 

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