Functional Medicine Labs & Ranges

by | Jul 29, 2022 | Articles | 0 comments

Blood Chemistry Labs & Ranges

Marker NameStandard Clinical Lab RangeFunctional RangeFunctional High Indications (excess symptoms)Functional Low indications (deficiency symptoms)
A/G Ratio1.1 – 2.51.5 – 2.0In excess it can cause immunoglobulin deficiency (agammaglobulinemia, chronic lymphocytic leukemia)Deficiency symptoms include albumin deficiency (liver cirrhosis, nephrotic syndrome, analbuminemia), globulin excess (acute infection/inflammation, chronic inflammatory disease, hematological neoplasm)
Albumin3.5 – 5.5 g/dL4 – 5 g/dLDehydrationImpaired liver function and inflammation
Alkaline Phosphatase39 – 117 IU/LMale: 5 – 26 IU/L
Female: 5 – 20 IU/L
pregnancy (normal in third trimester), endocrine disease, hepatic cholestasis, biliary cholestasis, bone disease, fatty meal (B and O blood groups only), and drugssevere anemia, pernicious anemia, malnutrition, nutrient imbalance, Wilson disease, hypothyroidism, hypoparathyroidism, celiac disease, estrogen replacement therapy, cardiac surgery, large-volume blood transfusions, milk-alkali syndrome, folate deficiency, and vitamin B6 deficiency
ALT0 – 44 IU/LMale: 5 – 26 IU/L
Female: 5 – 20 IU/L
Metabolic dysfunction, iron overload, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, viral infections, autoimmune liver diseaseVitamin B6 deficiency, hemodialysis, impaired liver function
AST0 – 40 IU/LMale: 5 – 25 IU/L
Female: 5 – 23 IU/L
Metabolic dysfunction, iron overload, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, viral infections, autoimmune liver diseaseVitamin B6 deficiency, hemodialysis, impaired liver function, uremia
BasophilsN/A0 – 3%Hypersensitivity reactions, inflammatory conditions, hypothyroidism, infections, myeloproliferative disorders, acute or chronic leukemiaovulation, normal pregnancy, acute allergic reactions, chronic spontaneous urticaria, stress reactions, hyperthyroidism, thymoma
Bilirubin, total0 – 1.2 mg/dL0.1 – 1.2 mg/dLIncreased bilirubin production, impaired hepatic bilirubin uptake, impaired bilirubin conjugation, conjugated hyperbilirubinemia, intrahepatic cholestasisNephrotic syndrome
BUN6 – 24 mg/dL13 – 18 mg/dLmild dehydration, impaired kidney function, inadequate sodium intake, stress, hypochlorhydria, urinary tract obstructionimpaired liver function, poor nutrient status/malabsorption, celiac disease, hypochlorhydria, anabolic steroid use, impaired kidney function
BUN/Creatinine RatioBUN:Cr – >20:1 (prerenal), 10-20:1 (normal or postrenal), <10:1 (intrarenal) Urea:Cr – >100:1 (prerenal), 40-100:1 (normal or postrenal), <40:1 (intrerenal)same as standardprerenal injury, gastrointestinal hemorrhage, muscle wasting, drugslow protein intake, liver failure, severe polyuria/polydipsia, muscle injury
Calcitriol19.9 – 79.3 pg/mL19.9 – 79.3 pg/mLHyperparathyroidism, sarcoidosis, hematological malignancy, solid organ malignancy, mycobacterium, histoplasmosis, other granulomatous conditionschronic kidney disease, renal failure, nephrotic syndrome, normal pregnancy, breastfeeding infants, inadequate sunlight exposure, obesity, fat malabsorption, hypoparathyroidism, secondary hyperparathyroidism, small bowel disease, gastric bypass surgery, pancreatic insufficiency, advanced liver disease, thermal burn injury, hereditary vitamin D-resistant rickets, cystic fibrosis
Calcium8.7 – 10.2 mg/dL9.2 – 10.1 mg/dLDehydration, excessive vitamin D supplementation, excessive calcium, immobility, drugsCaffeine, phosphates, high intake of phytate, vitamin D deficiency, magnesium deficiency, low stomach acid, chronic renal failure, alcoholism, medications
Chloride97 – 108 mmol/L100 – 106 mmol/LDehydration, kidney disease, acid-base disturbance, hormonal conditions, saltwater ingestion, hypertonic saline administration, drugsinadequate NaCl intake, acid-base abnormalities, hormonal conditions, congestive heart failure, liver cirrhosis, nephrotic syndrome, interstitial nephritis, small bowel fistulas, hyperglycemia, pathological polydipsia, drugs
Cholesterol, Total100 – 199 mg/dLMale: 150 – 220 mg/dL
Female: 150 – 230 mg/dL
Primary disorders of cholesterol metabolism, diabetes mellitus, hypothyroidism, obesity, cigarette smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, anorexia nervosa, nephrotic syndrome, renal failure, obstructive liver disease, hepatitis, acute intermittent porphyria, systematic lupus erythematosus, Von Gierke disease, poor thyroid function, intestinal permeability, chronic infections, heavy metal toxicityPrimary disorders of cholesterol metabolism, anemia, chronic inflammation, infection, hyperthyroidism, chronic liver disease, sickle cell disease, malabsorption and undernutrition, Gaucher type I disease, malignancy
CO2 (Carbon Dioxide)18 – 29 mmol/L25 – 30 mmol/LEmphysema, diuretic use, aldosteronism, hyperemesisFunctional dysglysemia, salicylate and diuretic use, fasting or malnutrition
Copper72 – 166 µg/dL81 – 157 µg/dLNormal pregnancy, excessive copper intake, hyperthyroidism, hemochromatosis, wilson disease, ceruloplasmin elevation, primary biliary cirrhosis, primary sclerosing cholangitis, drugsmenkes disease, nutrient imbalances, gastrointestinal malabsoroption, hypproteinemia, chronic dialysis, prolonges total parenteral nutrition, aceruloplasminemia, drugs
Creatinine0.76 – 1.27 mg/dLMale: 0.85 – 1.1 mg/dL
Female: 0.7 – 1.0 mg/dL
strenuous exercise, mild dehydration, enlarged prostate, pregnancy, other pathological conditions involving muscle catabolismdecreased muscle mass, inadequate dietary protein intake, impaired protein digestion, impaired liver function
CRP-hs0 – 3 mg/L0 – 1 mg/Lobesity, cigarette smoking, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, physical inactivity, sleep disturbance chronic fatigue, depression, other inflammatory conditions, cardiovascular disease, infection, malignancy, uremia, rheumatoid arthritis, polymyalgia rheumatica, giant cell arteritis, systematic lupus erythematosus, drugsN/A
eGFR59 mL/min/1.7359 mL/min/1.73N/AN/A
EosinophilsRelative: 0 – 5%
Absolute: 0.0 – 0.4 x 10 ‘3 /µL
Relative: 0 – 3%
Absolute: 0.0 – 0.4 x 10 ‘3 /µL
Infections, allergy and atopy, drug hypersensitivity, skin disorders, lung diseases, hypereosinophilic syndrome, systemic mastocytosis, hypoadrenalism, cholesterol embolization, radiation exposure, neoplasticacute infection, acute inflammation, acute stress, erythropoietin deficiency, drugs
FerritinMale: 30 – 400 ng/mL
Female: 15 – 150 ng/Ml
Male: 30 – 200 ng/mL
Female: 30 – 100 ng/mL
Functional iron overload, functional liver problems, insulin resistance and metabolic dysfunctionFunctional iron deficiency, malabsorption, blood loss, pregnancy
Folate3 µg/L8 µg/LN/A
Free Thyroxine Index1.2 – 4.91.2 – 4.9Pregnancy, hyperthyroidism, T4 toxicosis, euthyroid hyperthyroxinemia, TSH-mediated hyperthyroidism, acute thyroiditis, familial dysalbuminemix hyperthyroxinemia, drugshypothyroidism, chronic thyroiditis, congenital thyroid agenesis, dysgenesis, or defects in hormone synthesis, nephrosis, drugs
GGT0 – 65 IU/LMale: 0 – 29 IU/L
Female: 0 – 21 IU/L
Iron overload, metabolic dysfunctionlow-protein diet, genetic GGT deficiency, drugs
Globulin1.5 – 4.5 g/dL2.4 – 2.8 g/dLHypochlorhydria, inflammation and oxidative stressHypochlorhydria, inflammation, anemias, blood loss
Glucose65 – 99 mg/dL75 – 85 mg/dLEarly stages of impaired glucose tolerance and insulin resistance, active stress responseReactive hypoglycemia, hypoglycemia, impaired liver function
HDL39+ mg/dL50 – 85 mg/dLInflammationInsulin resistance and metabolic dysfunction, inflammation, impaired liver function, numerous chronic disease states
Hematocrit37.5% – 51%Male: 40 – 48%
Female: 37 – 44%
Dehydration, erythrocytosis, polycythemiafunctional anemia
Hemoglobin12.6 – 17.7 g/dLMale: 14 – 15 g/dL
Female: 13.5 – 14.5 g/dL
Dehydrationfunctional anemias
Hemoglobin A1c4.8 – 5.6%4.6 – 5.3%Impaired glucose tolerance and insulin resistance, non-pathologicalgeneral marker of ill health
Homocysteine0 – 15 µmol/L<7 µmol/LVitamin B12 deficiency, vitamin B6 deficiency, folate deficiency, hypothyroidism, menopause, impaired homocysteine metabolism, end-stage renal diseaseN/A
IGF-185-200 ng/ml100-175 ng/mlSome cancers grow more easily (prostate and breast)Cardiovascular disease, dementia, Alzheimer’s, sarcopenia, death from cancer
Iron40 – 155 µg/dL40 – 125 µg/dLFunctional iron overload, functional liver problems, insulin resistancefunctional iron deficiency, celiac disease and other GI conditions that cause malabsorption, blood loss, pregnancy, chronic inflammatory conditions
Iron Saturation15 – 55%17 – 45%Functional iron overload, functional liver problemsfunctional iron deficiency, chronic inflammation
LDH121 – 224 IU/L140 – 180 IU/LEarly stages of Cardiac issues, pregnancy, rhabdomyolysis, endocrine, GI issues, hematologic issues, infections, central nervous system disorders, melignancy, neuromuscular issues, pulmonary, rheumatologic issues, renal infarction, carbon monoxide exposure, idiosyncratic LDH elevation, drugsHypoglycemia, reactive hyypoglycemia
LDL0 – 99 mg/dL50 – 140 mg/dLnormal pregnancy, obesity, sedentary lifestyle, alcohol abuse, diabetes mellitus, hypothyroidism, chronic kidney disease, nephrotic syndrome, cholestatic liver diseases, drugs, poor thyroid function, intestinal permeability chronic infections, heavy metal toxicityAbetalipoproteinemia, hypobetalipoproteinemia, chylomicron retention disease, infection, hyperthyroidism, anemia, malnourishment, neutropenia, non-cholestatic liver disease, malignancy, drugs
LymphocytesRelative 26 – 46%
Absolute: 0.7 – 3.1 x103/µL
Relative: 25 – 40%
Absolute: N/A
Infections, stressors, hyperthyroidism, rheumatoid arthritis, leukemias, lymphomas, serum sickness, autoimmune lymphocytosis, malignant thymoma, monoclonal B call lymphocytosis, drugs, viral infectionszinc deficiency, protein malnutrition, alcohol abuse, infection, autoimmune disorders, trauma, genetic immunodeficiency disorders, immunosuppressive therapy, cancer, aplastic anemia, cushing’s syndrome, cancer treatment, bacterial infections
Magnesium1.6 – 2.6 mg/dL2.0 – 2.6 mg/dLHypothyroidism, impaired kidney function, use of antacids with magnesium, excessive supplementation with magnesium, addison’s disease/adrenal insufficiencyMagnesium deficiency, malabsorption, fluid loss, many other disease states
MCH26.6 – 33 pg/cell27.7 – 32 pg/cellMacrocytosisIron deficiency, thalassemia
MCHC31.5 – 35.7 g/dL32 – 35 g/dLAutoimmune hemolytic anemia, thermal injury, sickle cell disease, homozygous hemoglobin C disease, xerocytosis, hereditary spherocytosisIron-deficiency anemia, thalassemia
MCV79 – 97 fL85 – 92 fLaging, pregnancy, infancy, vitamin B12 deficiency, folate deficiency, aplastic anemia, hemolytic anemia, reticulocytosis, megaloblastic anemia, liver disease, excessive alcohol intake, hypthyroidism, leukemia, multiple myeloma, myelodysplastic syndrome variants, drugsalpha and beta thalassemia, sideroblastic anemia, iron deficiency, vitamin B6 defieicny, copper deficiency, lead poisoning, zinc poisoning, chronic inflammation, hemoglobinopathies, inherited microcytic anemia, hypothermia, drugs
MMA0 – 378 nmol/L<300 nmol/Lfunctional B12 deficiency, pregnancyN/A
MonocytesRelative: 2 – 12%
Absolute 0.1–0.9 x10’3/µL
Relative: 4 – 7%
Absolute: N/A
acute stress, myelproliferative disorders, chronic infections, noninfectious inflammation, hematologic cancers, inflammationmutations of the hematopoietic transcription factor gene GATA2, infection, aplastic anemia, severe thermal injury, hematologic cancers, drugs
NeutrophilsRelative: 49 – 74%
Absolute: 1.4 – 7.0 x103/µL
Relative: 40 – 60%
Absolute: N/A
normal pregnancy, transient elevation during labor and delivery, normal infancy, cigarette smoking, acute infection, noninfectious inflammation, acute stress, myelproliferative disorders, metabolic disorders, poisoning, acute hemorrhage, cancers of the blood, solid tumor cancers, drugs, bacterial infectionvitamin B12 deficiency, folate deficiency, copper deficiency, congenital neutropenia, infection, post-infectious neutropenia, autoimmune neutropenia, myelodysplastic syndromes, cancers of the blood, aplastic anemia, paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria, drugs, viral infection
Phosphorus2.5 – 4.5 mg/dL3.0 – 4.0 mg/dLexcessive vitamin D supplementation, impaired kidney function, recent broken bone, many other disease statesvitamin D deficiency, hypochlorhydria, fluid loss, many other disease states
Platelets150 – 379 x 10’3/µL150 – 379 x 10’3 / µLnonmalignant hematologic conditions, acute and chronic inflammatory conditions, cancer, primary thrombocythemia, tissue damage, asplenia, spurious laboratory result, drug-induced thrombocytosisvitamin D deficiency, vitamin B12 deficiency, folate deficiency, copper deficiency, pregnanacy-related thrombocytopenia, autoimmune disorders and rheumatologic diseases, infection, aplastic anemia, dilution, primary bone marrow disorder, bone marrow infiltration by cancer, hypersplenism or chronic liver disease, congenital platelet disorders, disseminated intravascular coagulation, thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura-hemolytic uremic syndrome, idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura, paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria, cardiac bypass, post-transfusion purpura, drug-induced thrombocytopenia
Potassium3.5 – 5.2 nmol/L4.0 – 4.5 nmol/Lfunctional dysglycemia, HPA axis dysfunction, impaired kidney function, pseudohypoaldosteronismfunctional dysglycemia, HPA axis dysfunction, malabsorption and malnutrition, alcoholism, medications such as antibiotics or diuretics, many other disease states
Protein, Total6 – 8.5 g/dL6.9 – 7.4 g/dLHypochlorhydria, goutprotein malabsorption
PTH15 – 65 pg/mL15 -30 pg/mLvitamin D deficiencyhypercalcemia, hypoparathyroidism, congenital hypoparathyroid disorders, hypomagnesemia
RBC4.14 – 5.80 x 106/µL4.40 – 4.90 x 106/µLdehydration, erythrocytosis, polycythemiafunctional anemia
RDW12.3 – 15.4%11.5 – 15%iron deficiency, folate deficiency, vitamin B12 deficiency, immune hemolytic anemia, cytotoxic chemotherapy, chronic liver disease, myelodysplastic syndrome, sickle cell disease, sickle cell-β-thalassemia, chronic liver disease, cardiovascular diseaseslaboratory error, error during blood withdrawal or blood handling
Serum B12211 – 946 pg/mL450 – 2000 pg/mLB12 supplementation, impaired B12 metabolismfunctional B12 metabolism, GI conditions impairing B12 absorption
Sodium134 – 144 nmol/L135 – 140 nmol/Lfunctional dysglycemia, HPA axis dysregulation (hyperfunction), cushing’s disease, mild dehydrationfunctional dysglycemia, hypothyroidism, HPA axis dysregulation (hypofunction), addison’s disease or glucocorticoid-induced adrenal insufficiency
T3 Free2.0 – 4.4 pg/mL2.5 – 4.0 pg/mLhyperthyroidism, facetious hyperthyroidismhypothyroidism, inflammation
T3 Reverse2.0 – 4.4 pg/mL9.2 – 24.1 ng/dLcarbohydrate deprivation, malnutrition, hyperthyroidism, non-thyroidal illness syndrome, inflammation, cirrhosis, chronic renal failure, acute febrile illness, uncontrolled diabetes mellitus, drugscentral hypothyroidism, x-linked monocarboxylate transporter 8 deficiency, drugs
T3 Total71 – 180 ng/dL100 – 180 ng/dLhyperthyroidism, facetious hyperthyroidismhypothyroidism, inflammation
T3 Uptake24 – 39%Male: 30 -38%
Female: 28 – 35%
testosterone replacement, PCOS, salicylate use, heparin therapyestrogen replacement, heparin therapy
T4 Free0.82 – 1.77 ng/dL1.0 – 1.5 ng/dLHyperthyroidism, facetious hyperthyroidismhypothyroidism, T3 replacement therapy
T4 Total4.5 – 12 µg/dL6 – 12 µg/dLHyperthyroidism, facetious hyperthyroidism, hepatitishypothyroidism, T3 replacement therapy
Tg Antibodies0 – 0.9 IU/mL0 – 0.9 IU/mLN/AN/A
TIBC250 – 450 µg/dL275 – 425 µg/dLfunctional iron deficiency, pregnancyfunctional iron overload, functional liver problems, chronic inflammation
Total Cholesterol / HDL Ratio0 – 50 – 3early stages of: primary disorders of cholesterol metabolism, obesity, sedentary lifestyle, cigarette smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, diabetes mellitus, hypothyroidism, nephrotic syndrome, renal failure, obstructive liver disease, hepatitis, acute intermittent porphyria, anorexia nervosa, systematic lupus erythematosus, Von Gierke disease, elevated cholesteryl ester transfer protein activity, lipoprotein lipase deficiency, elevated hepatic triglyceride lipase activity, drugsimpaired liver function
TPO Antibodies0 – 34 IU/mL0 – 34 IU/mLN/AN/A
Triglycerides0 – 149 mg/dL50 – 100 mg/dLnon-fasted state (as long as patient was fasting), early insulin resistance, hypothyroidismmalabsorption, hyperthyroidism, autoimmune disease
Triglycerides / HDL Ratio0 – 3.80 – 2early stages of: hypertension, obesity, hyperinsulinemia, insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome, coronary heart disease, diabetes mellitus, hypothyroidism, smokinginflammation (high HDL) and/or autoimmune disease
TSH0.45 – 4.5 µIU/mL0.5 – 2.0 µIU/mLhypothyroidism, iodine deficiency, selenium deficiency, zinc deficiency, functional iron overloadfacetious hyperthyroidism, pituitary hypofunction
TSI Antibodies0 – 139%0 – 139%N/AN/A
UIBC175 – 350 µg/dL175 – 350 µg/dLfunctional iron deficiency, pregnancyfunctional iron overload, functional liver problems, chronic inflammation
Uric Acid3.7 – 8.6 mg/dLMale: 3.7 – 6 mg/dL
Female: 3.2 – 5.5 mg/dL
functional dysglycemiavitamin B12 deficiency, folate deficiency, molybdenum deficiency
Vitamin B12600 – 750 pg/ml600 – 750 pg/mlLiver disease, certain types of leukemia, diabetes, kidney failurepermanent nerve damage, deteriorating brain functions, memory loss, temporary infertility in women
Vitamin D, 25-hydroxy30 – 100 ng/mL35 – 60 ng/mLexcessive intakenonpathological in some nonwhite populations
WBC3.4 – 10.8 x 10’3/µL5.0 – 8.0 x 10’3/µLnormal pregnancy, transient elevation during labor and delivery, normal infancy, cigarette smoking, acute infection, inflammation, chronic inflammatory conditions, acute stress, myeloproliferative disorders, hematologic and neoplastic diseases, metabolic disorders, certain genetic abnormalities, drugsvitamin B12 deficiency, folate deficiency, copper deficiency, congenital neutropenia, infection, post-infectious neutropenia, autoimmune neutropenia, myelodysplastic syndromes, hematologic and neoplastic diseases, aplastic anemia, paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria, drugs
Zinc56 – 134 µg/dL81 – 157 µg/dLexcess zinc supplementation, inhalation of ZnO fumes, prolonged use of denture adhesives, familial hyperzincemiamalnutrition, vegetarian diets, total parenteral nutrition with inadequate zinc, sickle cell anemia, pregnancy, prolonged breast-feeding, severe burns, decreased absorption, states of hypoalbuminemia, drugs
Zinc / Copper Ratio0.85 – 1.20.85 – 1.2excess zinc, decreased copper, hypoproteinemia, drugsexcess copper, decreased zinc, decreased absorption, drugs, increased copper and decreased zinc

A/G Ratio

  • It is the ratio of the proteins albumin to globulin. They are synthesized by the liver. Albumin provides osmotic pressure and helps to retain water in the vasculature. It is also a carrier protein for calcium, thyroid hormones, unconjugated bilirubin, and some pharmaceutical drugs. Globulin is a heterogeneous combination of proteins including enzymes, clotting factors, immunoglobulins, and proteins of the complement system.


  • As said above, albumin is a protein that produces osmotic pressure in blood vessels and acts as a carrier protein for some substances inlcuding thyroid hormones, long-chain fatty acids, calcium, toxic heavy metals, and some drugs. The osmotic pressure it provides is important for fluid balance in the peripheral tissues.

Alkaline Phosphate

  • It is the family of related zinc metalloenzymes that reside in the liver, bones, kidney, and placenta. It plays a role in bone mineralization and fat absorption.


  • ALT stands for Alanine aminotransferase and is an enzyme found in hepatocytes that causes the transfer of an amino group from alanine to alpha-ketoglutarate, creating pyruvate and glutamate.


  • AST stands for aspartate aminotransferase reversible catalyzes the transfer of an alpha amino group between aspartate and glutamate. During this reverse transfer, a-ketoglutarate is converted to oxaloacetate. AST needs vitamin B6 as a cofactor for catalysis and pyridoxamine 5′-phosphate for the reverse reaction. AST atabolizes amino acids do they can enter the citric acid cycles and help produce energy.


  • They are a type of white blood cell and they promote an increase in eosinophil and engage in the differentiation of macrophages in the lungs. They also play an important part in getting rid of parasites from the intestines and at as a detective immunity against parasites that normally enter through the skin.

Bilirubin, total

  • It is a waste product of heme catabolism. It can be found in the bloodstream, liver, in bile, or intestines as it moves from red blood cell degradation byproduct to elimination in the feces. It can act as an antioxidant. It is responsible for the color of bile and feces.


  • BUN stands for blood urea nitrogen and it is the quantity of urea nitrogen in the blood. Urea has no known benefit to the body other than that it is a waste product from protein metabolism and is excreted in the urine.


  • BUN as stated above is the measure of nitrogen in the urea molecules. Creatinine is a waste product of protein catabolism, specifically muscle proteins. Neither have a known benefit or physiological action in the body but the BUN to creatinine ratio can give information about blood volume and renal perfusion.


  • It is the most biologically active form of vitamin D. It is regulated by PTH and is responsible for increasing absorption of calcium, increasing resorption rate of bone, and decreasing the excretion of calcium and phosphate by the kidneys.


  • It is a divalent ion that is important for cell signaling, blood clotting, muscle contraction, and nerve function. It is almost all found within the bones and teeth.


  • It is one of the body’s main electrolytes. It is an anion found throughout the entire body, but mostly in the blood. It works with sodium to maintain osmotic pressure and water balance and adds to serum osmolality. It also engages in acid-base homeostasis, it acts as a buffer and maintaining the right electrical gradient across cell membranes.

Cholesterol, total

  • It is the major lipid in the circulation and is an important component of cell membranes in the body. It provides structural integrity to the phospholipid bilayer and increases cell membrane permeability. It is also the structural precursor to steroid molecules including bile acids, vitamin D, cortisol, corticosteroid, aldosterone, and sex steroids,


  • It is the waste product of cellular respiration. The changes in Carbon dioxide can influence respiration rate and alter function of the lungs and kidneys to regulate pH in the blood.


  • It is an essential trace element for metalloenzymes that are involved in cellular respiration, decomposition of superoxides, bone formation, neurotransmitter synthesis, production of melatonin and melanin, collagen cross-linking, and thrombosis. It is present in all tissues but is highly found in the liver and the brain.


  • It is a soluble waste product of muscle catabolism. It has no physiological action in the body, but creatinine levels can be used to assess kidney function.


  • CRP-hs stands for high sensitivity C-reactive protein. C-reactive protein is an acute phase reactant which means it enters the bloodstream in high numbers in response to inflammation and tissue injury. They engage in pro- and anti-inflammatory functions, it finds phosphocholine, it improves recognition and elimination of pathogens, necrotic, and apoptotic cells, activate monocytes and the complement system, and it can be an early predictor of cardiovascular disease and occult atherosclerosis.


  • eGFR stands for estimated glomerular filtration rate. The overall GFR is the sum of filtration rates from each functioning nephron. Exact measurement is not needed in routine checkups and the levels of creatinine are commonly used to estimate GFR.


  • It is one of the 5 major types of white blood cells and are granulocytes. Eosinophils go to areas of inflammation and they release substances within their granules that adds to the inflammatory response. It releases enzymes, growth factors, cytokines, lipid mediators, oxygen species, and granule proteins. These substances also can damage tissues and cause more inflammation.


  • It is a storage protein for iron and it stores and releases iron in a controlled way to help protect the body against iron deficiency and overload.


  • It is a coenzyme that engages in single-carbon transfers that happen during nucleic acid and amino acid metabolism. It is a cofactor in synthesis of methionine from homocysteine, purine biosynthesis, thymidylate biosynthesis, synthesis of DNA, and protein metabolism. It also converts different amino acids into glutamate.

Free Thyroxine Index

  • The free thyroxine index is used to estimate free thyroxine levels. FTI relies on total T4 and T3 resin uptake. An elevated FTI can indicate hyperthyroidism.


  • GGT stands for gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase and is an enzyme that transfers a gamma-glutamyl moiety to an amino acid acceptor. GGT can be used to clarify the source of increased alkaline phophatase levels in the blood. High levels of GGT and alkaline phosphatase levels in the serum can possibly indicate hepatobiliary disease but high levels of alkaline phosphatase but not GGT can suggest a bone effected disease.


  • It is any plasma protein other than albumin. It makes up 40 percent of plasma proteins which includes carrier proteins, clotting factors, enzymes, immunoglobulins, and complements. Immunoglobulins and complement are important for adaptive and innate immune systems.


  • It is a monosaccharide sugar and is the primary energy sources of living cells of living organisms. It is a substrate for energy production via aerobic and anaerobic respiration as well as fermentation. It can be converted to glycogen that is stored in the liver and can rapidly release glucose into the bloodstream when needed.


  • HDL stands for high-density lipoprotein and is one of the 5 major lipoproteins in plasma. It shuttles fatty acids from adipocytes and many fat-containing cells to the liver. It also exports cholesterol to the ovaries, testes, and adrenal glands that then serve as a precursor for steroid-containing hormones. It also engages in helping to remove cholesterol from lipid-laden macrophages in atherosclerotic plaques


  • It is the percentage of red blood cells by volume. It provides information on the relative amount of red blood cells per unit of blood volume.


  • It is the iron-containing metalloprotein in red blood cells. It carries the oxygen from the lungs to the tissues in the body and gives red blood cells their color. It also moves about 10 percent of the body’s carbon dioxide. It functions as an antioxidant and engages in iron metabolism outside of the red blood cells.

Hemoglobin A1c

  • This is a subtype of hemoglobin and it is non-enzymatically glycosylated by circulating glucose. Its role is not distinguishable from other subtypes of hemoglobin but it is useful for estimating the average level of blood glucose. It can be used to inform diabetes mellitus diagnoses.


  • It is an amino acid intermediate in the methionine and folate cycles. Although, increased levels are related to vascular diseases and cognitive disorders.


  • It is one of the most important anabolic hormones which control our bodies growth (good or bad). IGF-1 stands for insulin-like growth factor and it does a job similar to insulin and is similarly anabolic. It ultimately helps adult cells to grow and divide and without it, children do not develop properly and can result in dwarfism and loss of muscle mass.


  • It is mostly found in hemoglobin proteins in which it engages in transporting oxygen to tissues in the body. Small portions is found in metalloenzymes required for dopamine, tyrosine, noradrenaline, and serotonin synthesis and acts as a cofactor for enzymes in gluconeogenesis, energy production, and DNA and RNA synthesis.

Iron Saturation

  • It is the percent of iron-binding sites on plasma proteins that is inhabited by iron. It approximates the percent of transferrin bound by iron,


  • LDH stands for lactate dehydrogenase and it reversibly makes NADH and pyruvate from lactate and NAD+. It is an enzyme that is important for gluconeogenesis, anaerobic metabolism, and glycolysis. It is also important for oxygenation of long-chain fatty acids in liver peroxisomes. These levels are a marker for tissue or cellular damage.


  • LDL stands for low-density lipoprotein and is one of the 5 major lipoproteins. It is the main carrier of cholesterol and can also carry triglycerides and phospholipids. It brings cholesterol to the liver for the creation of bile acids and to non-liver tissue.


  • It is one of the 2 major categories of white blood cells. There are 3 different types of lymphocytes that are important for different things in the immune system: B lymphocytes, T lymphocytes, and natural killer cells. B lymphocytes are the main site of antibody synthesis. and act as antigen presenting cells, participate in wound healing, regulate dendritic cell function, produce cytokines, and engage in tumor immunity and transplant rejection. T lymphocytes are important in cell-mediated immunity and the main types of them are cytotoxic, memory T cells, and helper T cells. Cytotoxic T cells find and destroy infected cells, Helper T cells engage in inflammation, and promote immune tolerance and tumor immunity but also engages in autoimmune disorders, allergy, hypersensitivity reactions, anaphylaxis, and tissue and organ rejection. Natural killer cells are in the innate immune system and they bind to and destroy some tumor or virus-infected cells.


  • It is a cofactor for over 300 enzymes and is a constituent of bones and teeth. It is essential for all enzymes that use and synthesize ATP and for the enzymes that are involved in the synthesis of RNA, DNA, proteins, and glutathione. It is needed in every cell to active transport calcium and potassium ions across cell membranes. That is important for muscle and nerve function as well as a normal heart rhythm, It is also important for regulating blood pressure, blood glucose and the levels of many nutrients including calcium, vitamin D, potassium, zinc, and copper.


  • MCH stands for mean corpuscular hemoglobin and it is the mass of hemoglobin in the average red blood cell. Iron-deficiency anemia can be related to low levels of MCH and megaloblastic anemia is related to high levels of MCH.


  • MCHC stands for mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration and is the average concentration of hemoglobin in a sample of red blood cells. It provides a ratio of hemoglobin mass to red cell volume. It also gives information on the hemoglobin which is the main transport molecule for oxygen in the blood. High levels is a sign of hyperchromic anemia and low levels is a sign of hypochromic anemia.


  • MCV stands for mean corpuscular volume and used as one of the standard indices to describe red blood cells. It gives an average volume of red blood cells. It is important for different diagnosis of anemia which are microcytic anemia, normocytic anemia, and macrocytic anemia,


  • MMA stands for methylmalonic acid which is a small molecule formed from the catabolism of the amino acids methionie, valine, isoleucine, and threonine, and cholesterol and odd-chain fatty acids. It is important for cellular or tissue function.


  • It is one of the 2 main types of agranulocytes. It makes up less than 10 percent of circulating white blood cells. It plays an important part in inflammation and in the innate immune system response pathogens, but they can possible make some inflammatory diseases worse.


  • It is a white blood cells that circulates in the bloodstream. It is also a type of granulocyte and is the most common phagocyte. It is an important part of the innate immune system and are the first cells called to infection or inflammation sites and then once there they internalize and destroy foreign microbes.


  • It is the primary constituent of bones and teeth. The rest is found inside cells and are important components of ATP, phospholipids in cell membranes, and the structural framework of DNA and RNA. It also helps to regulate the use of certain vitamins and minerals including iodine, vitamin D, zinc, and magnesium.


  • They are cells that are important to repairing damaged blood vessels. They call for white blood cells and progenitor cells to vascular injury sites.


  • It is an electrolyte that adds to the resting membrane potential across all cell membranes which is needed for nerve, heart, and muscle function. It is important for maintaining blood pressure control, acid-base homeostasis, gastrointestinal motility, renal function, fluid and electrolyte balance, and glucose metabolism.

Protein, Total

  • It is the quantity of circulating proteins per unit volume of serum. It is a way to quantify albumin and globulins in the blood.


  • PTH stands for parathyroid hormone and it is one of the 2 hormones that controls calcium and phosphate homeostasis. It is the primary hormone that is in charge of serum phosphate levels.


  • RBC stands for red blood cells and they transport oxygen to cells in the body. They also absorb and carry carbon dioxide from the tissues to the lungs to be discarded and help to buffer blood pH.


  • RDW stands for red cell distribution width and it is the variation in sizes of red blood cells. It is measured with MCV. RDW indicates if red blood cels are about the same volume or have a wide range of volumes.

Serum B12

  • It is vitamin B12 and it is essential for DNA synthesis and is needed for the synthesis of the purine and pyrimidine nucleotide bases. It is also quite important for the formation of normal and functional red blood cells and engages in an important role in the nervous system development and neurological function.


  • It is mainly found in plasma and is the primary extracellular cation. It is important for regulating extracellular fluid volume, osmotic equilibrium, acid-base balance, and blood pressure. It also helps with the resting membrane potential across all cell membranes which is key for muscle and nerve function.

T3 Free

  • T3 is also known as triiodothyronine and is the most biologically active thyroid hormone. It modifies gene transcription in almost all cells. It is key for the development of brain and other tissues in fetuses and infants. It sets the metabolic tone for adult cells.

T3 Reverse

  • It is considered an inactive thyroid hormone but it is a competitive inhibitor of enzymatic conversion of T4 to T3.

T3 Total

  • It is the major biologically active thyroid hormone.

T3 Uptake

  • It estimates the saturation of thyroid hormone molecules on serum-binding proteins. It was developed to figure out if abnormal T4 levels are from differences in free thyroid hormone levels or abnormal TBG levels.

T4 Free

  • It is the portion of the total thyroid hormone T4 group that is not bound to serum proteins.

T4 Total

  • T4 is also known as thyroxine and is one of the 2 biologically active thyroid hormones. It is the precursor of T3.

Tg Antibodies

  • Tg antibodies is also known as thyroglobulin antibodies and they are autoantibodies channeled against epitopes residing in the Tg protein. It is not normal for it to be present in the blood and can indicate a chronic autoimmune thyroiditis.


  • TIBC stands for total iron-binding capacity and it measures the blood’s capacity to carry iron. It is used as an indirect marker of transferrin concentration.

Total Cholesterol/HDL Ratio

  • It is the ratio of the total cholesterol to HDL cholesterol in the blood. It is fairly accurate predicting coronary heart disease risk along side LDL cholesterol.

TPO Antibodies

  • TPO stands for thyroid peroxidase and it is the enzyme that is key to thyroid hormone synthesis. It can also become an antigen in autoimmune thyroid disease. It helps to determine the cause of thyroid dysfunction.


  • It is the combination of a glycerol molecule and three fatty acids. They are one of the main lipids found in the serum and are a main part of fat cells. They are the main energy storage molecule. Being able to store and release triglycerides when food is scarce is key to survival.

Triglycerides/HDL Ratio

  • This ratio between triglycerides and HDL cholesterol can be used to aid in predicting the atherogenicity or plasma. It also is related to myocardial infarction risk and can be used to estimate atherogenic dyslipidemia and residual cardiovascular risk in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.


  • TSH stands for thyroid-stimulating hormone and it stimulates the thyroid gland to produce thyroid hormone.

TSI Antibodies

  • TSI stands for thyroid-stimulating immunoglobulin and TSI antibodies are autoantibodies that see and bind to epitopes on the thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor. It specifically activates the TSH receptor and in turn increases the synthesis and release of thyroid hormones.


  • UIBC stands for unsaturated iron-binding capacity and it measures how much more iron the blood can possibly carry.

Uric Acid

  • It is the end product of purine metabolism and serves as a soluble molecule for the discarding of purine molecules in urine. It can also functions as an antioxidant and free radical scavenger. It is believed to add to inflammation and oxidative stress.

Vitamin B12

  • It is a water-soluble vitamin that is absorbed in the intestines and is used to make DNA and red blood cells.

Vitamin D, 25-hydroxy

  • It is one of the 2 main biologically active forms of vitamin D and has many different functions. It helps to facilitate calcium absorption and to maintain calcium and phosphate levels in the blood. It is essential for bone formation, normal function of muscle tissue, nervous tissue, and immune system cells.


  • WBC stands for white blood cells and are the major cell type of the immune system. They have a nucleus unlike red blood cells. There are five different types of white blood cells: neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils, lymphocytes, and monocytes.


  • It is a trace element and is key for the proper functioning of about 250 proteins. It plays an important part in cell growth and replication, immune system function, protein synthesis, DNA synthesis, bone and joint health, wound healing, and thyroid function. It is essential for normal growth and development and integral to the sense of taste and smell.


  • They are both trace elements and are key to hundreds of proteins in the body,

Hormone Ranges

HormoneStandard RangeFunctional Range
Cortisol (serum)Morning: 7 – 28 μg/dL
Afternoon: 2 – 18 μg/dL
Morning: 10 – 15 μg/dL
Afternoon: 6 – 10 μg/dL
Cortisol (blood spot)Morning: 8.5 – 19.8 μg/dL
Evening/Night: 3.3 – 8.5 μg/dL
Same as standard
Cortisol Morning (saliva)3.7 – 9.5 ng/mlSame as standard
Cortisol Night (saliva)0.4 – 1.0 ng/mlSame as standard
Cortisol Noon (saliva)1.2 – 3.0 ng/mlSame as standard
Cortisol Evening (saliva)0.6 – 1.9 ng/mlSame as standard
DHEAS (serum)65 – 380 μg/dLApproximately 200 – 280 μg/dL
DHEAS (blood spot)40 – 290 μg/dLApproximately 165 – 290 μg/dL
DHEAS (saliva)2 – 23 ng/mlUnder 30 years old: 6.4 – 18.6 ng/ml
Estradiol (serum)15 – 350 pg/mL in Premenopause
<32 in postmenopause and not on hormones
Day 3: <80 pg/ml
Day 14: 150 – 350 pg/ml
Postmenopause: 50 pg/ml for bone strength
Estradiol (blood spot)43 – 180 pg/ml Premeno-luteal or ERTDay 14 for women in their twenties: 350 pg/ml
After menopause: >32 pg/ml
Estradiol (saliva)1.3 – 3.3 pg/ml Premenopausal (Luteal) and 0.5 – 1.7 pg/ml PostmenopausalDay 21 or 22: 1.3 – 1.7 pg/ml
Fasting blood glucose60 – 99 mg/dl70 – 86 mg/dl
Free T3 (blood spot)2.5 – 6.5 pg/mlfor ZRT 4.5 – 6.5 pg/ml
Free T4 (blood spot)0.7 – 2.5 ng/dLfor ZRT 1.45 – 2.5 ng/dL
FSH (blood spot)0.6 – 8.0 U/L Premenopausal-lutealDay 3: <10 U/L
Progesterone (serum)Luteal phase: 8 – 33 ng/mLLuteal phase: 15 – 33 ng/mL
Progesterone (blood spot)3.3 – 22.5 ng/ml Premeno-luteal or PgRTN/A
Progesterone (saliva)75 – 270 pg/ml Premenopausal (luteal)N/A
Ratio: Pg/E2 (blood spot)100 – 500300 – 500
Ratio: Pg/E2 (saliva)100 – 500 pg/ml when E2 1.3 – 3.3N/A
Serum ferritin11 – 307 ng/ml (standard units)
11 – 307 mcg/L (international units)
70 – 90 ng/ml or mcg/L
Free Testosterone (serum)0 – 2.2 pg/ml1.1 – 2.2 pg/ml
Testosterone (blood spot)20 – 130 ng/dL Premeno-luteal or TRTN/A
Testosterone (saliva)16 – 55 pg/ml (Age dependent)36 – 55 pg/ml
TPO (blood spot)0 – 150 IU/ml (70 – 150 bordeline)<70 IU/ml
Triglycerides (blood spot)<150 mg/dL<50 mg/dL
TSH (blood spot)0.5 – 3.0 uU/ml0.3 – 2.5 mIU/L
Vitamin D, 25-OH, D2<4 if not supplementingN/A
Vitamin D, 25-OH, D332 – 100 ng/ml74 – 90 ng/ml
Vitamin D, 25-OH, Total32 – 100 ng/ml75 – 90 ng/ml

Hormone Highs and Lows

HormoneHighLowMore Info
CortisolCushing syndrome: obesity, round face, fatty hump on base of neck, high blood pressure, high blood sugar, thin skin, pink or purple streaks on stomach, thighs, or butt, muscle weakness, osteoporosis, acne, and for women irregular menstrual periods and excess facial hair and chest hairAddison disease: weight loss, muscle and joint pain, fatigue, low blood pressure, belly pain, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, dark patches, and for women decreased armpit and pubic hair and decreased sexual desireCortisol Level Test: Purpose, Procedure, and Risks (
DHEAabnormal menstruation, hirsutism, infertility, severe acne, vaginal atrophytype 2 diabetes, adrenal deficiency, AIDS, kidney disease, anorexia nervosa; prolonged fatigue, poor concentration, a diminished sense of well-beingDHEA-Sulfate Serum Test: Purpose, Procedure, and Results (
DHEAS Test: What It Is, Procedure, Results (
DHEA Supplements: Benefits, Uses, Side Effects and Dosage
EstradiolIn women: bloating, tender breasts, fibrocystic lumps in your breasts, decreased sex drive, irregular menstrual periods, increased symptoms of PMS, mood swings, headaches, anxiety and panic attacks, weight gain, hair loss, cold hands or feet, trouble sleeping, fatigue, memory problemsexcessive exercise, eating disorders, low-functioning pituitary gland, premature ovarian failure, Turner syndrome, chronic kidney diseaseSigns and Symptoms of High Estrogen: Diagnosis, Treatment, and More (
Low Estrogen Symptoms: Identification, Treatment, and More (
Estradiol Test: Purpose, Procedure & Risks
Fasting blood glucoseDiabeteshypoglycemiaDiabetes – Diagnosis and treatment – Mayo Clinic.
Hypoglycemia – Symptoms and causes – Mayo Clinic.
Fasting Blood Sugar: Screening Test for Diabetes
Free T3grave’s disease, thyroid nodules, thyroiditis; unexplained weight loss, feeling shaky, increased bowel movements, heart arrhythmiahypothyroidismT3 (Triiodothyronine) Test: What It Is, Function & Levels (
Free T4hyperthyroidism, high levels of protein in the blood, too much iodine, too much thyroid replacement medication, trophoblastic disease, germ celldietary issues, medications that affect protein levels, hypothyroidism, illness, a pituitary problemT4 Test: Purpose, Procedure, Abnormal Test Results & More (
Thyroxine (T4) Test: MedlinePlus Medical Test
FSHin women: a loss of ovarian function, ovarian failure, menopause, polycystic ovarian syndrome, a chromosomal abnormalitywomen isn’t producing eggs, man isn’t producing sperm, hypothalamus or pituitary gland are not functioning properly, a tumor interfering with brain’s ability to control production of FSHFollicle-Stimulating Hormone (FSH) Test (
Progesteronepregnancy, anxiety, bloating, breast tenderness, depression, fatigue, loss of libido, mood swings, muscle weakness, vaginal drynessheadaches, migraines, mood changes (anxiety or depression), irregularity in menstrual cycleLow Progesterone: Complications, Causes, and More (
High Progesterone Levels: Symptoms and Remedies | New Health Advisor
Serum ferritinobesity, inflammation, daily alcohol consumptioniron deficiency, anemiaManagement of Elevated Serum Ferritin Levels – PMC (
Ferritin test – Mayo Clinic
Free testosteronein women: PCOS: infertility, lack of menstruation, acne, obesity, blood sugar problems, extra hair growthin men: hypogonadism: loss of sex drive, low energy, bone loss, infertilityFree Testosterone – Health Encyclopedia – University of Rochester Medical Center
Testosteronein women: congenital adrenal hyperplasia, PCOS, hirsutismreduced libido, difficulty obtaining/retaining an erection, difficulty concentration, poor results from exercise, increased body fat, loss of muscle mass, loss of bone density, depression, poor work performance, unfavorable changes in cholesterolTestosterone Deficiency Syndrome (Hypogonadism) – Adult Urologic Conditions and Treatments – Department of Urology – University of Rochester Medical Center – Rochester, NY – University of Rochester Medical Center
High Testosterone Levels in Women: Causes, Symptoms, and More (
Signs of High Testosterone: 28 Signs in Men and Women (
What Do Our Bodies Use Testosterone For? (
Pg/E2progesterone is high relative to estrogen; estrogen deficiency, excessive progesteronelow progesterone relative to estrogen, estrogen dominancePg/E2 Ratio – Lab Results explained |
TPOrapid heartbeat, sweating, increased anxiety, muscle tremors, problems sleepingfatigue, hair loss, constipation, weight gainTPO Blood Test Results Meaning – HRF (
Thyroid peroxidase antibody test: What is it? – Mayo Clinic.
Triglyceridesdiabetes, kidney disease, liver disease, obesity, thyroid diseasehealthy diet, low-fat diet, long-term fasting, malnutrition, malabsorption, hyperthyroidism, cholesterol-lowering drugsHigh Blood Triglycerides – High Blood Triglycerides | NHLBI, NIH
Low Triglycerides: High LDL, Diet, Symptoms, Dangers, and More (
TSHhypothyroidismhyperthyroidismTSH (Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone) Test (
Vitamin Dgranulomatous disorders, congenital disorders, some lymphomas, dysregulated vitamin D metabolismfrequent illness, fatigue, bone and back pain, depression, impaired wound healing, bone loss, hair loss, muscle pain, weight gain, anxietyVitamin D Deficiency: Symptoms, Treatments, and Causes (
6 Side Effects of Too Much Vitamin D (


  • Cortisol is a steroid that is heavily involved in the stress and fight, flight, or freeze response in the body. High levels produce “more” energy and strength. During a response you can possibly have a rapid heart rate, dry mouth, diarrhea, panic, and stomach aches. With the release of cortisol it also suppresses your growth processes, your digestive system, your reproductive system, and it changes how your immune system decides to respond. Cortisol also plays a role in the immune system, nervous system, circulatory system, skeletal system, and the breakdown of proteins, fats, and carbohydrates.


  • DHEA stands for dehydroepiandrosterone and it is released by the adrenal glands and contributes to male traits, but both men and women have it. It can be converted into both testosterone and estrogen.


  • It is a form of estrogen and is also called 17 beta-estradiol. It is made be the ovaries, breasts, and adrenal glands and when one is pregnant, placenta also makes it. Estradiol aids in the growth and development of the uterus, fallopian tubes, the vagina, and the breasts. It also plays a part in how the fat is distributed in the female body and important for bone and joint health specifically in females. In males, estradiol is made by the adrenal glands and the testes. It can play a role in preventing the destruction of sperm cells.

Fasting blood glucose

  • Fasting blood glucose test measures the amount of sugar in your blood and is a common way to diagnose pre-diabetes, diabetes, or gestational diabetes.

Free T3

  • T3 is also known as triiodothyronine and most of it is from T4 transformed into T3. T3 and T4 work together in the body to help regulate the metabolic rate, heart and digestive functions, muscle control, brain development, and bone maintenance. T3 is considered the active form of thyroid hormone.

Free T4

  • T4 is also known as thyroxine and plays roles in the growth and metabolism of the body. A T4 test is used to check your thyroid function and helps to diagnose and monitor thyroid diseases.


  • FSH stands for follicle-stimulating hormone and is important for the reproductive system. Specifically is plays a role in the growth of ovarian follicles in women, and the gonads and sperm production in men.


  • It is a female sex hormone and is produced primarily in the ovaries after ovulation every month. It plays an important role in regulating the menstrual cycle and in the maintenance of pregnancy. Specifically, it helps to thicken the lining of the uterus to help prepare for the fertilization of an egg. If there is no fertilized egg, progesterone levels drop and the menstrual cycle begins, but if there is a fertilized egg, it aids in maintaining the uterine lining during pregnancy. It also is essential for the development of the breasts and breastfeeding.

Serum ferritin

  • Ferritin is a blood protein and it contains iron meaning a ferritin test’s purpose is to test the iron levels inside the blood. It helps to diagnose anemia if ferritin levels are low are possible liver disease, rheumatoid arthritis, other inflammatory conditions, and hyperthyroidism if ferritin levels are high.

Free Testosterone

  • This measures the amount of unattached testosterone in the blood.


  • Testosterone is produced in both men and women. It is considered an androgen hormone and produces the male characteristics in the body. It is produced in the testes in men, ovaries in women, and adrenal glands for both. It is responsible for external and internal organ development in males and during puberty it is responsible for growth spurts, deepening of the voice, and growth of pubic hair, facial hair, and underarm hair. It plays a role in aggression, sexual drive, and sperm creation in men, and it plays a role in women’s sex drive and it secretes hormones important for the menstrual cycle. It also stimulates the body to make new red blood cells and lastly, in men is can affect bone density, fat distributions, and muscle strength.


  • This ratio is Progesterone compared to Estrogen/Estradiol.


  • TPO stands for Thyroid peroxidase and it plays an essential role in the production of thyroid hormones. A TPO test is meant to check for antibodies against TPO.


  • They are a type of lipid present in the body that is used both for immediate and stored energy.


  • TSH stands for thyroid-stimulating hormone and it is responsible for regulating the amount of hormones that are released from the thyroid. A TSH test can be used to determine the underlying cause of abnormal thyroid hormone levels or to look for an underactive or overactive thyroid gland.

Vitamin D

  • It is a fat-soluble vitamin that is essential in the proper functioning of the body including bone health and immunity as well as help prevent cancer and some chronic conditions.

All blood chemistry information is from Chris Kresser so if you would like to check out his website you can click on his name or click here!

Hormone information is from Dr. Sara Gottfried and if you would like more information you can click on her name or here! And some more links down below

For more personalized information check out:


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